Tovarna avtomobilov Maribor (TAM)

 

Tovarno letalskih delov, ki se je po vojni preoblikovala in najprej preimenovala v Tovarno avtomobilov Maribor Tezno, nato pa v Tovarno avtomobilov in motorjev Maribor,  so leta 1941 prisilno zgradili domači in tuji ujetniki pod okupacijsko oblastjo. Proizvodnji objekti so bili dograjeni marca  1942, junija je v tovarno prispelo prvih 120 strojev, redna proizvodnja pa je stekla aprila 1943. Tega leta so pričeli tudi z gradnjo podzemnih dvoran, da je lahko proizvodnja nemoteno potekala do konca vojne.Leta 1947 so v tovarni izdelali prvih 29 tovornjakov po češki licenci PRAGA-RN, leta 1949 je dobil tovornjak PRAGA-RN  uradno ime PIONIR. V prvih petnajstih letih po vojni so naredili 17.416 vozil PIONIR, po letu 1967 pa so začeli z izvažanjem na druge kontinente. Leta 1950 so pričeli z izdelavo avtobusov PIONIR. Leta 1952 je podjetje po Jugoslaviji organiziralo lastno servisno službo, leta 1953 pa so pričeli z odpiranjem prodajaln vozil v večjih jugoslovanskih mestih. Leta 1957 so predstavili nov tovornjak TAM 4500 proizveden po licenci KHD (Klockner-Humbold-Deutz), kar predstavlja pomemben mejnik v zgodovini podjetja.Od leta 1960 je podjetje širilo mrežo kooperantov, leta 1975 je sodelovalo že z več kot 200 kooperanti v Jugoslaviji in tujini. Podjetje je vozila med drugim izvažalo v Turčijo, Burmo, Nemčijo, Irak, Kitajsko, Saudsko Arabijo, Alžirijo, Bolgarijo, Egipt, Indonezijo, Kongo, Gano, Kolumbijo, Pakistan, Sovjetsko Zvezo in na Poljsko.

 

V osemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je bilo podjetje na vrhuncu, njegov osnovni proizvodnji program je obsegal več kot 15 različnih tipov tovornjakov in avtobusov večinoma lastne konstrukcije, skupaj s posebnimi vozili, kot so gasilski ali komunalni, pa je to število ponudbe preseglo 90.

 

Leta 1990 je TAM zašel v gospodarsko krizo in 1996 je bil razglašen stečaj.

 

Leta 1947 je bil potrjen logotip Tovarne Maribor Tezno s tremi krogi in petokrako zvezdo v sredini, kateregaje oblikoval arhitekt Černigoj in je veljal do konca obstoja TAM-a.

 

Tovarna avtomobilov Maribor TAM (Maribor Automobile Factory)

 

The factory of aircraft parts, which was restructured and renamed into Tovarnaavtomobilov Maribor Teznoafter WW II and later changed its name to Tovarnaavtomobilov in motorjev Maribor, was built in 1941 using forced labour by national and foreign prisoners of the occupying regime. Production facilities were extended in March 1942 and the first 120 machines arrived to the factory in June. Regular production started in April 1943, when they also started building underground production halls so that production could run uninterruptedly until the end of the war. In 1947, the factory produced the first 29 trucks according to the Czech PRAGA-RN license. In 1949, the PRAGA-RN truck was officially named PIONIR. During the first 15 years after WW II, the factory produced 17.416 PIONIR vehicles and started exporting them to other continents in year 1967. In 1950, TAM started producing PIONIR busses. In 1952, the company organised its auto services across Yugoslavia; one year later, in 1953, they started opening automobile stores in bigger cities of Yugoslavia. In 1957, they introduced a new TAM 4500 truck, produced according to the KHD (Klockner-Humbold-Deutz) license, which represents a milestone in the company's development. From 1960, the company constantly expanded its partner network. By 1975, TAM cooperated with more than 200 partners from Yugoslavia and abroad and exported its vehicles to Turkey, Burma, Germany, Iraq, China, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Bulgaria, Egypt, Indonesia, Congo, Ghana, Columbia, Pakistan, the Soviet Union and Poland.

 

In the 1980’s, the company was at its peak. Its basic production programme included more than 15 different types of trucks and busses predominately of their own production, and more than 90 vehicles, if we also include special vehicles like fire fighting and public works vehicles.

 

In 1990, TAM faced a financial crisis and declared bankruptcy in 1996.

 

In 1947, the company approved the factory’s logo with three circles and a five pointed star in the middle, designed by architect Černigoj, which has remained unchanged until the end.

 

Source:  Boris Brovinsky – TAM v Mariboru, kjerdelajotovornjake. Od licence do lastnegaprogramavozil.

Leksikonmariborskedružbe in kulturepoletu 1945

Sledovimariborskegagospodarstva v arhivskemgradivuPokrajiskegaarhiva Maribor

Industrijska pot Maribor

© 2012 David Šalamun